Jeffrey H. Norwitz. “Combating Terrorism: With a Helmet or a Badge?” In Paul J. Bolt, ed. American Defense Policy, 8th edition, (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 424-432.
Is terrorism a crime to be fought with search warrants and jurisprudence, or is it an act of war? Indeed, the word war became commonplace in media and government lexicon while citizens, political leaders, and the military became energized.
Curiously, as talk of military mobilization permeated the media, we heard of Herculean law enforcement efforts by thousands of federal, state and local officers to gather physical evidence, execute search warrants, and run thousands of leads seeking to establish criminal culpability for acts of terrorism. This chapter will examine old paradigms about terrorism, and offer a perspective on how criminal approaches have not grasped the nature of this war.
Jeffrey H. Norwitz. “Disrupting Armed Groups: Human Intelligence Strategies.” In Keith Logan, ed. Homeland Security and Intelligence. 2nd ed. (Santa Barbara, Praeger Publishers, 2018), 273-290.
The future of war, conflict, and societal unrest will be increasingly defined by non-state actors who reject traditional notions of sovereignty, national identity, and international norms of behavior. This chapter will suggest applications for human source intelligence in order to neutralize emerging challenges from dangerous armed groups and related movements.